What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of blood is taken from the body to be tested in a lab. Doctors order blood tests to check things such as the levels of glucose, hemoglobin, or white blood cells. This can help them detect problems like a disease or medical condition. Sometimes, blood tests can help them see how well an organ (such as the liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test? Hemoglobin is the protein inside of red blood cells that carries oxygen. A hemoglobin electrophoresis test measures the different types of hemoglobin in the blood. Normal hemoglobin carries and delivers oxygen well, but some abnormal types of hemoglobin do not. Why Are Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Tests Done? Doctors may order the test to help diagnose conditions related to irregular hemoglobin production, such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. How Should We Prepare for a Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test? Your child should be able to eat and drink normally unless also getting other tests that require fasting beforehand. Tell your doctor about any medicines your child takes because some drugs might affect the test results. Also let the doctor know if your child has had a blood transfusion. This can affect the hemoglobin electrophoresis test. Wearing a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt for the test can make things easier for your child, and you also can bring along a toy or book as a distraction. How Is a Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test Done? Most blood tests take a small amount of blood from a vein. To do that, a health professional will: clean the skin put an elastic band (tourniquet) above the area to get the veins to swell with blood insert a needle into a vein (usually in the arm inside of the elbow or on the back of the hand) pull the blood sample into a vial or syringe take off the elastic band and remove the needle from the vein In babies, blood draws are sometimes done as a "heel stick collection." After cleaning the area, the health professional will prick your baby's heel with a tiny needle (or lancet) to collect a small sample of blood. Collecting a sample of blood is only temporarily uncomfortable and can feel like a quick pinprick. Can I Stay With My Child During a Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test? Parents usually can stay with their child during a blood test. Encourage your child to relax and stay still because tensing muscles can make it harder to draw blood. Your child might want to look away when the needle is inserted and the blood is collected. Help your child to relax by taking slow deep breaths or singing a favorite song. How Long Does a Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test Take? Most blood tests take just a few minutes. Occasionally, it can be hard to find a vein, so the health professional may need to try more than once. What Happens After a Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test? The health professional will remove the elastic band and the needle and cover the area with cotton or a bandage to stop the bleeding. Afterward, there may be some mild bruising, which should go away in a few days. When Are Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Test Results Ready? Blood samples are processed by a machine, and it may take a day or two for the results to be available. If the test results show signs of a problem, the doctor might order other tests to figure out what the problem is and how to treat it. Are There Any Risks From Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Tests? A hemoglobin electrophoresis test is a safe procedure with minimal risks. Some kids might feel faint or lightheaded from the test. A few kids and teens have a strong fear of needles. If your child is anxious, talk with the doctor before the test about ways to make the procedure easier. A small bruise or mild soreness around the blood test site is common and can last for a few days. Get medical care for your child if the discomfort gets worse or lasts longer. If you have questions about the hemoglobin electrophoresis test, speak with your doctor or the health professional doing the blood draw. Back to Articles Related Articles Getting a Blood Test (Video) A blood test might sound scary, but it usually takes less than a minute. Watch what happens in this video for kids. Read More Blood Test (Video) These videos show what's involved in getting a blood test and what it's like to be the person taking the blood sample. Read More Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is a disease of the blood. Red blood cells are shaped like sickles, and can get stuck, especially inside smaller blood vessels. Read More Anemia Anemia is common in teens because they undergo rapid growth spurts, when the body needs more nutrients like iron. Learn about anemia and how it's treated. Read More What's Anemia? What does it mean when a kid has anemia? Learn about anemia, why kids get it, and how it's treated in our article for kids. Read More Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape and cause health problems. Find out more in this article for teens. Read More Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape and cause health problems. Find out how to help your child. Read More Blood Test: Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. A hemoglobin test can be done as part of a routine checkup to screen for problems and or because a child isn't feeling well. Read More Beta Thalassemia Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body. Read More Alpha Thalassemia Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body. Read More Anemia Anemia happens when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary problems, medical treatments, and inherited conditions. Read More Newborn Screening Tests Newborn screening tests look for health conditions that aren't apparent at birth. Find out which tests are done. Read More Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c Doctors use a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test to determine if your child's diabetes management plan needs to be adjusted. Read More Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995-2021 KidsHealth®. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.