A variety of things can cause pain in the scrotum, the pouch-like structure at the base of a boy's penis. More to Know The scrotum holds the testicles (the organs that produce sperm). It also holds the epididymis and the vas deferens, which are tubes that sperm travel through before leaving the body. Things that can cause scrotal pain include: Testicular torsion, which is when the spermatic cord that provides blood flow to the testicle rotates and becomes twisted, usually due to an injury or medical condition. This cuts off the testicle's blood supply and causes sudden and severe pain and swelling. Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires immediate surgery to save the testicle. Epididymitis, the swelling and inflammation of the epididymis, the coiled tube at the back of the testicle that holds and carries sperm. It's often treated with antibiotics, ice, and rest. Scrotal contusions (bruises) can follow a bump or fall during sports or active play. The injury may cause blood to leak out from small blood vessels called capillaries. This can cause soreness, swelling, and "black and blue" marks on the skin. A bruise should gradually become less painful and fade until it is gone in about 2 weeks. Many scrotal injuries can be prevented by wearing a protective cup during contact, ball, or puck sports. Hernias are fairly common, and more than 70% of these are inguinal hernias, in which a part of the intestines protrudes through an opening in the lower part of the abdomen, near the groin. The protruding piece of intestine may enter the scrotum, which can cause swelling and pain. Keep in Mind Boys and teen guys can sometimes experience scrotal pain that doesn't always come from the scrotum itself. Sometimes it comes from a pulled muscle or tendon near the scrotum, or from another part of the body, such as the lower back or belly. All A to Z dictionary entries are regularly reviewed by KidsHealth medical experts. Back to Articles Related Articles A to Z: Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of fluid around the testicle within the scrotum. Read More A to Z: Undescended Testicle Undescended testis is a condition in which one or both of a boy's testicles (testes) have not moved into their proper place in the scrotum. Read More For Boys: Trouble "Down There" Boys might feel embarrassed if they get hurt or have a health problem "down there." Find out more in this article for kids. Read More How to Do a Testicular Self-Exam (Slideshow) The testicular self-examination (TSE) is an easy way for guys to check their own testicles to make sure there aren't any unusual lumps or bumps - which are usually the first sign of testicular cancer. Read More Male Reproductive System What makes up a guy's reproductive system and how does it develop? Find the answers to these questions and more. Read More Male Reproductive System Understanding the male reproductive system and what it does can help you better understand your son's reproductive health. Read More Testicular Exams If you're a guy, you may be wondering why the doctor needs to do a testicular exam. Find out in this article. Read More Testicular Injuries Serious testicular injuries are relatively uncommon, but testicular injury can be painful. Read this to find out what steps you can take to protect yourself from injury. Read More Testicular Torsion This emergency condition happens when the spermatic cord gets twisted and cuts off blood supply, causing pain and swelling. Find out what to do in this article for teens. Read More Testicular Torsion This emergency condition causes extreme genital pain and usually requires surgery to save a boy's testicle. If your son has groin pain, get him to a doctor right away. Read More Undescended Testicles Shortly before birth, a boy's testicles usually descend into the scrotum. When a testicle doesn't make the move, this is called cryptorchidism, or undescended testicles. Read More Ultrasound: Scrotum Doctors order a scrotal ultrasound when they're concerned about symptoms such as scrotal pain or swelling. Read More Varicocele A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum. Although there is no way to prevent a varicocele, it usually needs no special treatment. Read More A to Z: Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both of a boy's testicles (testes) have not moved into their proper place in the scrotum. Read More Hernias Hernias are fairly common in kids, and hernia repair is one of the most common pediatric surgeries. Read More Hernias A hernia is an opening or weakness in the wall of a muscle, tissue, or membrane that normally holds an organ in place. Learning to prevent hernias isn't hard to do - check out these tips. Read More A to Z: Epididymitis Epididymitis refers to swelling and inflammation of the epididymis, the coiled tube at the back of the testicle that holds and carries sperm. Read More Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995-2021 KidsHealth®. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.