What Is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy comes from a Greek word meaning "to hold or seize," and people who have epilepsy have seizures. You might also hear a seizure called a convulsion, fit, or spell.

Your brain cells are constantly sending out electrical signals that travel along nerves to the rest of the body.

These signals tell the muscles to move so you can do your normal activities. During a seizure, a person's muscles tighten and relax rapidly or stop moving completely. Seizures come on suddenly, and people who have them cannot control their muscles while they are having a seizure.

Depending on where in the brain a seizure is happening, a person’s behavior may change in different ways. If too many brain cells are sending signals at the same time, it causes an overload, and a person may pass out and shake all over. People who have epilepsy may have seizures only once in a while or as frequently as every day.

What's a Seizure?

A seizure is a change in a person’s behavior that comes from abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Most seizures occur without warning, although some people have a funny feeling, an upset stomach, or a weird smell or taste right before a seizure. This is called an aura. Others find that certain things may bring on a seizure, like not getting enough sleep or playing video games.

During a seizure, the person may fall down, shake, stiffen, throw up, drool, urinate (pee), or lose bowel control.

Other seizures seem less dramatic. Someone might just stare into space or have jerking movements in one part of the body. When the seizure is over, the person may feel sleepy and won't remember what happened.

Who Has Epilepsy?

About 3 million Americans have epilepsy, including boys and girls and people of all races and ages. Seizures can start at any age, but often they begin before age 10 or after age 55.

Doctors often can't explain why a person has epilepsy. They do know that epilepsy is not contagious — you can't catch it from somebody. Epilepsy is not passed down through families (inherited) in the same way that blue eyes or brown hair are. But if somebody's mom or dad or brother or sister has epilepsy, then he or she has a slightly higher risk for epilepsy than somebody whose family has no history of seizures.

How Can Doctors Help?

If a person has a seizure, doctors may do some tests, such as a CAT scan, an MRI, or an electroencephalogram (EEG). A CAT scan or MRI helps a doctor look at the brain and an EEG records brain waves. Don't worry — these tests don't hurt at all. Blood tests may also be done.

All of these tests can help doctors try to find out what caused the seizure and if a kid might have more seizures. But sometimes seizures are a one-time thing — many kids who have one seizure never have another one.

Most people who are diagnosed with epilepsy can control their seizures by taking medicines. As they get older, many kids with epilepsy get better and can stop taking medicine. For some kids, it may be difficult to get the seizures under control. A special diet or surgery may be needed.

Are Kids With Epilepsy Different?

People who have epilepsy may need to be careful in places where they could get hurt if they have a seizure, like a high place or in the bathtub. And they may not be able to do certain sports, such as boxing or scuba diving.

But other than that, most people with epilepsy can live normal lives and do what everyone else does. They can go to school, attend college, and get jobs. They can get married and have children.

However, even if epilepsy doesn't limit a person's ability, it can make a kid feel different. So, if you know somebody who has it, you can help a lot just by being a good friend.

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Note: All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995-2021 KidsHealth®. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.